(under 20 weeks)
Fetal deaths (20 weeks and over)
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Order of pregnancy
Figure 6. Variations in relative mortality rates with order of pregnancy from gestation to early childhood (relative rates = specific rate expressed as a percentage of the rate for the total-all pregnancies-in each age group), Hawaii, 1953.
Source: Yerushalmy et al. (31).
crease in risk for offspring of advanced birth order for infective and parasitic diseases"those diseases in which environmental factors must have played an important role; (b) an increased risk associated with higher parity in the younger mothers, as was also observed by Morrison, et al. (27) and shown in Figure 4.
Family Size and Physical Growth. Much of the evidence examined so far relates to the effects of family size on very young children. Evidence of the persistence of these effects is available from several longitudinal studies of physical growth. The data show definite, sustained differences in the growth of children, associated with family size and lasting through adolescence.
In Great Britain the National Survey of Health and Development carefully followed physical growth in a long-term study of 5,386 children bom during the first week of March, 1946. The sample was drawn from all parts of Great Britain and included all children born to the wives of nonmanual workers and of farm laborers and 25 percent of those born to the wives of other manual workers and the self-employed. The findings to date (and they are still being